Each cell's nuclei are home to approximately 2 meters of DNA, each measuring only 10 mm in size. This packaging feat is achieved by wrapping DNA around proteins to create chromatin fibers and condensing them into tightly connected loops. Two protein complexes, condensin, and cohesin are responsible for the formation and maintenance of these loops. Each of them is responsible at different stages of the cell cycle. It is still a mystery how these complexes manage to wrestle the stringy chromatin.
Researchers have suggested that condensin and cohesin look like donuts. This has led to the suggestion that chromatin could somehow pass through their middles. You can read more about life science discovery in detail through https://big4bio.com.
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It is used in specialized microscopy techniques to observe cohesin's movements. These included high-speed atomic for microscopy (HS-AFM), which allows visualization of individual molecules in real-time, and single-molecule fluorescence energy transfer (smFRET), which detects molecules or parts of molecules coming into proximity.
These results indicate that there is a particular sequence of events occurring in the dance between DNA and cohesin. The first is that cohesin's "hinge region" binds DNA, and then it swings towards one of the protein complex’s two "heads".
Understanding how life works is fundamentally important, as protein complexes such as condensin and cohesin can be found in all living cells.